An electromagnetic water softener is a device which does not use any chemicals to treat water and this is one of its benefits. Among all available brands, Calmat is one of the most popular electromagnetic water softeners.
As any electromagnetic water conditioner it does not remove hardness salts from water, but neutralizes them. As a rule, hardness salts form scale when water is heated. To be more exact, calcium and magnesium are dissolved well in cold water, but when water is heated their solvability get worse.
As a result, they precipitate. It results in appearance of scale on pipes, in water heaters, kettles, etc. Water forming scale is called hard. So, the water softener is designed to solve the problems caused with hard water.
Unlike ion exchange aimed to remove salts from water, this water softener transforms salts from one form to another without use of any chemical reagents. As a result, it prevents scale formation. What are the benefits of its use? The electromagnetic water softener helps to consume less energy when you heat water.
First of all, a water softener is a device developed to solve problems associated with hard water. If the water softener is not used, shower heads, water drain systems and screen type filters of the faucets are clogged and water flow is reduced.
When the tap is turned on and water begins to pass through the screen type filter, water pressure increases and then reduces to zero. At this moment chemical and physical processes are more intense because of the pressure drop. As a result, the process of scale deposit is also more intense. When the tap is turned off, hard water left in cells of the screen dries and causes appearance of scale. The water softener helps to solve this problem and has a good effect on useful life of the plumbing, faucets, shower heads, etc.
Water softeners differ in their size, operation concept and electric energy demand. For example, an average capacity of the WaterBoss 700 is 25 liters per minute while the average capacity of the water softener produced by CWT is 41 liter per minute. Calmat softener does not remove iron, manganese and sulphuretted hydrogen from water unlike WaterBoss, and this water softener has better power consumption. An average power consumption of WaterBoss 700 is 15 W per hour. As for Calmat, it is 1.5 W.
This type of the water softener is also known as a water filter, because its work is based on the act of nature known as osmosis. Before talking aboutwater softener based on the phenomenon of reverse osmosis, let us study out what osmosis is.
All living cells have walls. These walls are nothing but only natural osmotic membranes with selective separating power and only water can pass through them without any effort. Being dissolved in water, molecules of mineral substances fall into ions. As the surface of the membrane is electrically charged it pushes these ions off. Mineral substances get through the membrane of the cell with help of special molecules and this process needs complementary energy.
As for the water softener using the phenomenon of reverse osmosis, it consists of the prime filter, reverse-osmosis membrane and output filter. Water gets to the prime filter and then it gets through aqueous solution of high concentration. Then water is forced through the membrane into the output filter while mineral substances are thrown off to the drain system.
Reverse-osmosis membrane of the water softener is composite polymer having nonuniform density. It consists of two inseparable layers. The top layer is called blocking layer. As a rule, it is 10 microinches.
The second layer is 5 thousandth of an inch. Reverse-osmosis membrane is an excellent filter. 99% of minerals dissolved in water are removed from. It means water filtered by the water filter contains no more than 6-7 mg/l. Membrane vesicle size is practically the same as size of the smallest water molecules.
In fact the best way to install a water softener is to hire a professional. But if you are sure and have installation directions, you can try to do it yourself. You should know installation of the water softeners is a rather difficult process and it will take a few hours and even more.
At first decide where it is better to install it. It is recommended to install the water softener near a waste pipe. A power socket should also be located nearby. Find a place where the water pipe enters the home and turn off water supply. Drain as much of the pipeline system as you can.
Then you should attach the filter to the pipes and connect water to it. By the way, most water softeners have a pipe for drinking water and a bypass valve. It is a good idea to buy such water softener, because having it you will be sure you drink sodium-free water and can repair this filter without problems.
If you are going to buy such filter, make sure it has copper caps. They are necessary to attach the valve to the plumbing system. 3/4-inch risers should be soldered to the caps to prevent damages or warping. The solder used by you should be lead-free. Then small pieces of plastic tubes (0.5 inches) should be connected to the sanitary drain pipe, overflow fitting of the water softener. Install the drain lines.
Talking about a water softener it would be pertinent to say a few words about hard water. A lot of magnesium or calcium is contained in it. Its degree of hardness is 50-500 mg/l. Such water causes a few problems that can be solved with help of the water softener.
First of all, hard water causes appearance of water scale inside water heaters, kettles and faucets. Hard water also affects badly quality of food prepared using it. The pipes and faucets become clogged and it reduces water flow. An additional point is that hard water has a bad effect on ability of the soap to lather.
Use of the water softener removing magnesium and calcium from water may help to solve both problems. The most common type of the water softener is an ion-exchanging resin device. There are potassium, hydrogen and sodium devices.
Apart from the above mentioned ion-exchanging resin softener, zeolite chemical-matrix filters are often used. How do they work? In fact, everything is simple. These devices replace ions of magnesium and calcium with ions of potassium, hydrogen and sodium respectively.
Each device has a negatively-charged resin bed. When water passes through it, calcium and magnesium ions are drawn out while potassium, hydrogen and sodium ions contained in the resin bed are released. Water softeners can also be divided into electronic and magnetic ones. Some chemicals are also used to soften water, but they can be very harmful for health. That is why it is recommended to avoid them.